Gueye is a sociologist trained at the École des hautes études en sciences sociales in Paris. His research focuses on the intellectual and sociopolitical dynamics of people of African descent both in Africa and the diaspora. Author of three scholarly books, of a novel, and (co)editor of several books and special issues, he has held postdoctoral fellowships at the Institute for Advanced Study (Princeton), the W.E.B. DuBois Institute at Harvard University, the University of Ghana, and the Fondation de la Maison des sciences de l’homme (Paris), to name a few.

He has assumed a three-year tenure on the editorial boards of the Canadian Journal of African Studies (CJAS) and the Canadian Journal of Development Studies. Following this, he accepted the position of Francophone editor of the CJAS for six consecutive years.